Maximal muscle strength is usually defined as the largest amount of weight that can be raised in one repetition or is the largest resistance to be overcome during one muscle contraction. It can also be known as the greatest value of muscle strength produced by maximum voluntary contractions and play an important role in sporting events that require overcoming or controlling high resistance such as throwing weight and hammer as they are very important in sports such as fast running wrestling, boxing, Hatred . That maximum muscle strength is essential in the development of explosive capacity at different speeds from the weightlifting sport starting the 100 meters race to swimming.
Benefits of maximum muscle strength
Training in the development of maximum muscle strength is given wide attention by coaches and athletes in various sports events and events because of its benefits in sports achievement.
1. Training in the development of maximum muscle strength is the only form of muscle strength that raises slow motor units and fast-paced motor units simultaneously and helps generate very high Force strength.
2. Training in the development of maximum muscle strength improves the harmony between the working muscles and the corresponding in the joint movement of what contributes to the flow of movement and economy.
3. The maximum muscle strength developed by this training is about three times what can increase muscle size, because the unnecessary increase in muscle size may negatively affect performance in many different sports.
Why do we need to develop maximum muscle strength?
The performance of skills in sports or achievement requirements is based on the ability (power x speed) and the requirements vary from one game to another but even long distance athletics athletes need the ability but their level is less than what the athlete needs in power games, ball games and throwing events. Jumping and wrestling, for example.
The increase in resistance requires an increase in Force, which must be done to overcome it, ie, an increase in the maximum muscle strength, and that the decrease in resistance needs to increase the speed of performance and decrease in strength, ie the decrease in the maximum muscle strength it needs And by analyzing the athlete’s effectiveness requirements, he can estimate the amount of force and the amount of speed he needs to perform at a high level.
There is no doubt that every athlete needs to develop maximum muscle strength, but the most important question remains whether every athlete needs to increase the maximum muscle strength by a high or enough level to achieve the level he needs in order to carry out the skills in his sport with high efficiency. The maximum level of muscular strength required varies from sport to sport. In some of them, we need to develop maximum muscle strength to the highest possible level, such as weightlifting and to the lowest possible level, such as running a medium distance. Thus, the best level of muscular strength that a athlete needs in his or her effectiveness is that which links muscle strength with athletic skills, that is to say, performing skills as strongly as possible. For this reason, the goal of the development of maximum muscle strength is how much athlete needs muscle strength to perform the skills efficiently and successfully and not the maximum amount of muscle strength that can be achieved by the athlete.
Training on the development of maximum muscle strength
The best way to develop the maximum muscle strength of athletes is by using free weights because they provide the opportunity to move in a larger motor field as I mentioned earlier. The principle of overloading is applied by increasing the load in two ways. First, experienced athletes do not benefit from a moderate experience in weight training, where the pregnancy is highly manageable and with a few repetitions which improves:
1. Compatibility between the muscle itself and
2. Compatibility between working muscles and
3. The period of neuro-muscular suppression is also limited to a minimum
4. Improves Force and Force Rate
5. Improves the ability to accelerate heavy loads and
6. Do not cause the increase of muscle size to a minimum.
The second method is the use of a load that enables the athlete to repeat the pregnancy without the maximum capacity for several times. The goal is to achieve a number of repetitions, the latest of which is a very high voltage that fails to raise the weight. This method is effective in developing the high strength of the muscle, accompanied by an increase in muscle size, Often due to an increase in muscle size.
Design of the training dose in the development of maximum muscle strength using weights
The training dose is designed using extreme intensity as shown below:
1 – Maximum ability :
Pregnancy = 90% to 100% of the maximum load 1 RM
Duplicates = 1 – 5
Rhythm = constant
Total = 3 – 5
Rest interval = 5 – 10 minutes
The period between two training units for this type of training is 84 hours to ensure the athlete’s strength is restored.
Or mounting download.
Pregnancy = 90%, 95%, 97%, 100%, 100%
Repetition = 3, 2, 1, 1, 1 + 1 For repetition 1 + 1, he should try to repeat the elevation twice and if he does not succeed, he will leave the elevation.
Rest between repetitions = 10 – 15 seconds enough to increase the weight and I mean this convenience between the completion of each pregnancy and another.
Totals = 2 – 3
Rest interval = 6 – 8 minutes
Note that this type of training dose repeats once every two episodes a week because it is very high high and the athlete needs to regain his strength before repeating it and therefore resort to another type of loading in the two seminars weekly in accordance with the principle of diversity in training.
2 – Load without maximum capacity:
The training dose in this type of training is designed to carry between 85% and 95%, allowing the athlete to complete the required duplicates. The training dose can be described as follows:
Pregnancy = 80%; 90%; 95%
Frequency = 10; 5; 2
Rest = between load and another equals 4-5 beats
Number of groups = 2 – 3
Rest = between totals is 6-8 minutes.
The period between the training unit and the other = 72 hours
Note: The principle of overload is applied by increasing the load or increasing the totals. The athlete may start with one group and gradually increase it to 4 groups per exercise. Frequencies can range from 4-7 repetitions in junior athletes in this type of training and between 3-5 repetitions for advanced athletes.
It should be remembered that high-load training makes the muscles work in two ways, one of which is fatigue of the muscles working in the same training unit and one can refer to warm-up mode after rest periods between groups or during the same training module. The second method is the accumulation of fatigue from one training unit to another. Therefore, if the training continues with high loads in two weekly sessions, this will lead to a decrease in the performance of the athlete and inability to implement the skills with high mechanics, thereby reducing the explosive performance. Therapeutic means that help restore the strength of the athlete’s body.
Training is recommended for the development of maximum muscle strength for a period of 6 to 8 weeks and according to the athlete’s experience and the level needed by the athlete in preparation to move to another level.
What is important in training the development of muscle strength is not to forget that the goal is to achieve a level of muscle strength, which contributes to the transfer of training to another level of training for the achievement of athletic achievement or a certain level of fitness and not achieve the maximum maximum muscle strength, Training that helps to perform athletic skills efficiently must be remembered as a way to improve performance only.
Concept of muscle strength:
Muscle strength is one of the basic components of fitness that is particularly important, considering its role associated with athletic performance or health in general, and did not receive any other component of fitness components as important as the strength of muscle that was around the myths of ancient, and remained the subject of a lot of Controversy so far, especially in terms of its impact on girls and children in different stages of growth and its association with the psychological aspect of the individual and the processes of hypnosis, and muscle strength remains a common goal sought by all people.
“Nolan Thakston” Haxtun defines muscle strength as:
“Muscle or muscle group ability to produce maximum force against resistance”
Sharkey 1984 focuses on shedding light on the nervous system in muscle strength, which he defines as:
“The maximum effort can be produced for the performance of one contraction muscle contraction.”
The word echo here reflects the extent of the control and control of the nervous system in muscle strength, which means that the muscle can contract in another way involuntarily, as happens when the electrical alert of the muscle.
Lamb 1984 emphasizes that muscle strength is:
“The maximum amount of strength the muscle can perform at the maximum muscle contraction one.”
In the light of these definitions, the concept of muscle strength can be determined in the following points:
1. Muscle strength is the result of the maximum muscle contraction without determinations: fixed or moving.
3. The contraction should be of a maximum degree and performed once.
3. Systolic contraction is voluntary under the control of the autonomic nervous system.
4. That the force is linked to the presence of resistance encountered whether this resistance is represented by external weight or the weight of the body itself or competitor resistance or friction resistance.
Although the definitions of muscle strength have been focused as the maximum muscle contraction can be performed once, but the quality of this debris has not been determined, it may take the form of maximum muscle contracture constant, or maximum muscle contractions with different types of the latter type, and as we mentioned above, it In practice, we can not isolate the component of muscle strength from the components of speed and endurance, so that when training to develop muscle strength must be taken into account the quality of the force required development, which can identify three types of strength are limited to the following.
1. Maximum power
It means the ability of the musculoskeletal system to produce maximum voluntary contractility, and it means the ability of the muscle to overcome or resist external resistance. It is clear that the maximum force when it can withstand a great resistance is called the constant maximum force. This type of force When you keep a certain position of the body against the impact of gravity, as happens in some movements of gymnastics and wrestling, and when the maximum power can overcome the resistance it faces in that case is called the maximum mobility, which is called lifting weights.
2. The power of speed
Which means the ability of the musculoskeletal system to produce a rapid force, which requires a degree of compatibility in the integration of power and speed recipe in one component, and is linked to the strength of speed in the activities that require strong movements and rapid in that one, such as jumping games and throwing various types and rapid enemy games and kicking skills Hatred .
3. Carry power
The ability of the nervous system to overcome certain resistance as long as possible in the face of fatigue, usually ranging from 6 seconds to 8 minutes, and shows this type of strength in the sport of rowing, swimming and running, as the momentum or tension increases the distance As a result of increased speed, while maintaining a high degree of performance performance during that time period.
The importance of muscle strength
The importance of muscle strength for athletes is due to their strong association with some of the components of physical fitness, such as the ability required by the nature of performance in jumping and throwing activities, hitting the ball and swimming in swimming. These activities require the production of fast power,
The strength of the foot of the earth increases the length of the running step. The strength of the tensile force in the swim increases the swimmer’s thrust forward, and both workers increase the thrust or tensile force ) To the speed of cutting the distance in the shortest possible time.
Muscle strength has a strong relationship to the element of endurance, especially in the performance of physical activities that require the continuation of the performance of strong muscle work, such as wrestling, boxing and others.
Muscle strength is linked to the overall health of the individual as it develops the muscle tone of the body Muscular Tone, and the strength of the muscles of the back works to prevent the individual from sliding cartilage, and the strength of the abdominal muscles help to resist the pressure of internal organs, which prevents the appearance of rashes or exposure to the mother in the lower back, And enjoy the good degree of muscle strength contributes to protect him from injury and gives the body shape of good strength.
And muscle strength has a clear impact on the psychological aspect of the individual, it gives him a good degree of self-confidence, and gives him a kind of emotional balance, and supports him elements of courage and boldness.
Muscle strength is one of the necessary physical qualities that must be developed appropriately using resistance and the reason for its importance is due to:
1) being one of the basic requirements for the development of explosion and speed.
2) A well-built muscle structure that acts as a shield to help withstand shocks caused by the impact of the body on other objects.
3) Muscle strength contributes to the maintenance of human health and protection from some of the injuries that appear after the age of forty.
The most important thing that a trainer should know about muscle strength is:
1) Definition of muscle strength: Muscle strength is defined in many ways. The most important of these definitions is that muscle strength is the ability to overcome the greatest resistance or is the force-to-force FORCE. If we take the principle of privacy into consideration, muscle strength is more detailed. It is a muscular or muscular ability to generate a force at a certain speed in a given position and direction. This definition shows us that muscle strength is very special.
2) Classification of muscle strength: Muscle strength is classified in several categories including maximum muscle muscular strength and strength of the muscle elastic (Bauer) and the pace of muscle strength and absolute muscle and relative.
Training on the development of muscle strength in itself is a difficult process and it is important that the athlete provides the appropriate time for the body cells to adapt gradually to the required level. It is not about the principle of gradualization in the process of adaptation to the training of muscle strength, but rather in the transition from one form of strength to another.
3) The principle of privacy and muscle strength: The muscle strength of the privacy of a high degree in different ways. In order to develop what we need in the game we must practice the game itself or by performing movements similar to the movements of the game itself using resistance. Basically, the athlete begins to develop the general muscle strength gradually to the special muscle strength. The peculiarity of muscle strength is:
* Type of power generated
* Direction of movement
* Speed of movement
* Angular work angles
* Type of resistance facing the path of muscle strength
* The work of other muscles associated with the joint
* With muscle group, limb …
4) Description of training doses: The development of muscle strength in its various forms passes through a wide range of training types using resistance. Each form of this digestive force is developed in a particular way in the elaboration of the components of the training dose – pregnancy, intensity, rhythm, repetition and cessation. But all developed using resistance as a lamb.
Muscle strength can be developed in a relatively short period of time. This improvement was due to the increased efficiency of neural-muscular compatibility and within two weeks only after training began. Muscle strength can be increased by 150% in one year of training. The most difficult thing in strength training is to increase the stiffness of the ligaments, tendons and capsule as it takes longer than one year.
The description of the training dose for the development of different forms of force depends on manipulation of pregnancy, severity, repetition, stopping rhythm and totals. Pregnancy expresses the amount of resistance to be overcome and is usually a weight. The intensity is calculated as a percentage of the maximum weight that can be overcome in one case (the highest weight that can be raised once).
The training dose is organized as follows:
* The development of maximum muscle strength: we resort to increase the load, reduce repetitions, and a steady rhythm.
* Stretching muscle strengths: we resort to work with a load and more, more repetitions, and quiet rhythm.
* Muscle strength or rubber (explosive ability): We choose to choose the pregnancy to the extent of resistance that we need and then choose the frequencies that fit the pregnancy and choose the rhythm.
The training plan should begin with the development of basic muscle strength if the athlete is a beginner in weight training. Training should continue according to the basic muscle strength for a period of 6 months or one year. It is recommended that the athlete begin physical exercise without first resisting and then using the resistance.
After the basic muscle strength, training begins on the general muscle strength using resistance that can be repeated between 8 to 12 times. The athlete starts with eight repetitions and the load is increased after the athlete can repeat the pregnancy 12 times comfortably. Training on general muscle strength lasts for six months at a rate of three days a week. After this period can begin to train the maximum muscle strength and then explosive capacity (muscle strength Rubber bands).
Maximum muscle strength lasts for 8 weeks The level reached is maintained. The maximum muscular strength training is followed by the training of the elastic muscle strength (explosive capacity) for only 4 to 6 weeks and the level is maintained afterwards.
5) Selection of exercises for muscle strength Basis: The basic training in muscle strength aims at toning the muscles, joints and tissues surrounding the joint to work against resistance. These exercises build the foundation upon which other forms of muscle strength are adopted. For this reason, the exercise on the basic muscle strength should take a large share of the annual training curriculum. This period depends on the previous experiences of the athlete and on the amount of basic muscle strength that has been maintained during the previous years. The athlete continues to develop basic muscle strength for a period of 4 to 12 weeks in training based on previous experiences. The muscle strength serves the basis in the following:
* To confirm the harmonious development of all major muscles and contribute to prevent the incidence of excessive use injuries.
* Physical benefits contribute to the stage of taking powers during the period of competition if the exercises carried out diluted.
* Build a base at the athlete who then moves to higher levels of muscle strength such as maximum muscle strength and then rubber power.
Thus, training on the basic muscle strength meets the requirements of the development of a mixture of forms of muscle strength, a unique mixture of training programs tailored to the mathematical capabilities of the time, the time available for training and the quality of exercise.
It should be remembered here that pregnancy in the training of the development of muscle strength of the base does not have the intensity that forces you to make a high effort in completing the latest lifts and the rhythm is always stable and calm.
Development of muscle strength
Success in the development of muscle strength requires the following basic general principles, the need to identify the tools and equipment needed for training, and the coordination of the different types of strength training, depending on the nature and quality of the muscle contraction, and then the planning process to achieve the goal of developing strength and selecting the best training systems. The following pages.
First: Foundations of muscle strength development:
In order to ensure maximum use of force training and to avoid the disadvantages resulting from these exercises, this requires the need to adhere to some principles and foundations that help in achieving this benefit. The most important bases used for the development of muscle strength are:
1. Use the maximum constriction (maximum intensity)
Is the best effect of strength training is the training using constriction muscular maximum ¡This does not mean that the individual performance of the maximum contraction once ¡This term is a strength training terms is called “maximum repeat visits” ORM One Repetition Maximum ¡But that is not practical in the exercises ¡strength training where the muscle using several iterations ¡In this case, uses the term “maximum frequency of the specified number” An / RM
: An number of times performance.
: R REPS.
: M Max.
In the case of the use of 6 frequency (6 RM) that any resistance training can repeat use is 6 times in the fatigue stage.
It was clear that the exercises great power or the ability to be using 6 repetitions or less while Imutasthaddam than 20 repetitions and more muscular endurance for the purpose of development.
It also uses another method to determine the amount of resistance by using the percentage of the maximum frequency of once ¡If the maximum frequency of one-time (RM) for one exercise is 100 agent grams mother of the use of 80% to repeat the exercise is equal to 80 kilograms and requires the use of this test method the maximum constriction performance to determine 100%.
2. Determine training intensity Intensity
Is the intensity of the components of the formation of carrying basic training alongside both size and periods of rest ¡It means in strength training two aspects: one is the amount of resistance faced by the muscle ¡and the other is the average performance of the exercise of any number of times the performance over a given unit of time ¡The increase in intensity to increase the speed of performance is the intensity of appropriate capacity development or distinctive force speed.
3. Training specifically the size of Volume
Training determines the size of the kidney counts the number of occurrences during the period of time Mahddh¡ as well as the number of weekly or monthly training or Alsnoah¡ doses also size training period Time Duration include the length of a dose Altdreb¡ usually used from 3 to 6 sets of exercises repetitive.
4. diversification of training
Help operations use a variety of training doses in size and intensity more gain strength ¡also helps to diversify training systems or different muscular contractions to perform the exercise.
5. Gradient increase resistance
This means that you need muscle to the amount of resistance they face even gain muscle strength and growth process will continue ¡This is done or used in resistance training to increase the amount of weight once it adapts its muscle ¡can also increase the size of the training to increase the number of iterations or groups.
6. determine the appropriate periods of rest
Given rest periods between the performance of the training groups to allow the muscle to the hospital to get rid of the effect of fatigue and rebuild energy sources ¡determine physical comfort periods depending on the specific objectives of the program ¡energy system used If duplicates of a set up three groups depending on the power system of anaerobic ATP – PC, the muscle you need to rest periods of not less than a 2 – 3 minutes.
In the case of the use of rest between groups less than one minute as in the case of ring training, ranging from 40% to 60% of maximum strength and rest periods of 30 seconds, this can lead to the use of the production of anaerobic energy system, and are broken down glycogen anaerobically, and the resulting acid which gather in the muscle and then comes out of them to the blood, so the body adapts to withstand and cope with an increase of lactic acid which is one of the requirements necessary for the competitions of the enemy and running from 100 meters to 800 meters, wrestling and basketball.
7. periods of rest between training doses
Periods of rest between training doses depend on the ability of the individual to the hospital and get rid of the effect of the previous dose, usually used 3 times training per week lead Monday, Wednesday and Friday, or vice versa Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday, especially with beginners, and can be increased weekly doses if what has been the adjustment process, some suggests that the use of four weekly doses better than three.
The situation is different for the players weightlifting, where training on muscle strength daily by 6th week, in this case is used on different parts of the body to focus, in the sense of the body different exercises daily.
8. The application of the principle of Privacy
Because the acquired effect of the exercise of muscle strength associated with the quality of the muscular contraction and the system of energy used and the speed of contraction and the corners of the muscular work and muscle groups working, the use of exercises that are consistent in the nature of its performance with the overall shape of the performance of specialized skills leads to better gain strength results, and this does not mean the neglect of the use of force exercises general, but only to be given a great deal of privacy in the focus on speed using muscle groups working and the type of contraction required speed and contraction during the full range of motion even realized the full benefit development.
9. taking into account the safety factor
Training requires using Overloading or resistance devices taking into account the safety factor to avoid injuries, and helps it to always be training in the presence of the trainer or under the supervision of an observer in loading Overloading and intervention to help in the event of any accident, and must be strong enough to provide assistance, and be Active to the nature of the technical performance of the movements of training and cranes, and take the player appropriate conditions for the performance of training maintains the integrity of the spine and joints of injuries, especially the lower back, and take into account the selection of appropriate clothing and the performance of adequate heating and ensure the safety of devices and tools from falling good, medical fitness prescribed by the doctor an important condition of the training conditions are considered.
10. breathing during performance
Some breathing Kutuzov are advised to dissuade jacks performance or output power, but this form a big burden on the heart that pumps blood to the blood vessels under high pressure, where up blood pressure when exercise pressure to the two men Leg Press (480/350) mm / Hg (Mac Duvall et al.) 1985, while the large increase in the case of breathing less, and therefore proposed to be taken sniffling when lifting and exhale when the cut during the performance of duplicates; So mute breathing is prohibited to dissuade jacks on the gravity of the heart, as it increases the internal pressure of the abdominal cavity, causing deadly.
11. Exercise performance speed
Strength training is considered the performance of the problems that still need to conduct further studies is that through the results of some studies conducted during the seventies as a study “Morph and Reid” and others. Medford et al .1970, and it turned out that the force must be the training is the same required speed performance, as the exercise is slow rapidly increases the amount of power when performing movements slow speed, and exercise at medium speed increases the amount of power when performing medium speed movements … and so, the higher speeds in strength training always include improved strength at least including speeds, and if you do not specify a certain speed training is preferred to use medium speed)
Second, tools and devices used in strength training:
There are different types of tools and devices that are used to develop muscle strength, it also can develop muscle strength through exercise without tools, and in the first case is determined to choose the quality of the exercise depending on the tools and devices available and in accordance with the required to achieve the target, taking into account that it can use these same tools for the development of muscular endurance training when less strongly with the number of iterations more, and are generally used for strength training the following means:
1. Exercises without weights
The word means Calisthenics in the ancient Greek language “beautiful power” Beautiful Strength, a way to move the body to perform the exercises in the sequence of rhythmic. This type of exercise depends on the use of the weight of the body in muscle strength development, and may be used in which some small tools, taking into account only always increases the frequency of 10 times to ensure that the direction of training for the development of power effect, and to ensure that it can increase the resistance to take different positions bipeds on a high chair to increase the resistance, or in the case of use of colleague increase download, and examples of these exercises, exercise sitting prone to strengthen the abdominal muscles as well as the tension on the horizontal bar exercises, and exercises jump feet together or running with carrying colleague on the shoulder to develop the strength of the muscles of the two men.
2. exercises with free weights
Different sets of free weights are used as resistors, and this requires that security and safety factors are taken into account to a large extent. Resistance is determined by choosing the appropriate load with the possibility of increasing or reducing it.
1. Iron bars with barbells
2. Dumbbells: It is a pair of iron connecting two rods of iron Dumbbells
3. Medical Balls Medicine Balls
Some of the devices that can be used for strength training and muscular endurance have recently emerged. These devices are more secure than free weights. They also provide the voltage and time to control and control the resistance used, as well as the possibility of better training when used.
1. Single muscle group
It is a device that can be used to perform strength training, and is equipped with loads that represent resistance and can be controlled in quantity. This device provides the individual with a suitable position during training with the ability to resist resistors easily.
2. Multi-station fitness device
It is a device similar to the previous device, but it contains several different stations each of which aims to strengthen a specific muscle group, such as the muscle group of the front of the shoulders and arms, and the range of muscles of the chest, and the group of the back muscles of the two men, and the group of abdominal muscles … Therefore, This device is the ability to perform it by several people at the same time, and this is suitable for use to overcome the problem of space constraints for the performance of various strengthening exercises, so some have been named this device “Multi – Gym” and “Gym” here derived from the ” Gymnasium gymnasium, so the label distortion Here is intended a device that can be used in fitness halls.
3. Water fitness apparatus
It is a device designed for a particular type of water-based watercolor rather than the use of iron-weight extractors.